Child custody is a legal term that refers to the legal and practical relationship between a parent and a child. It is a complex and sensitive issue that arises when parents separate or divorce. Pennsylvania’s child custody laws are designed to protect the best interests of the child while also ensuring that both parents have an opportunity to maintain a meaningful relationship with their child.

Legal Framework:

In Pennsylvania, child custody is governed by the Pennsylvania Child Custody Act of 2010 (PCCA). The law provides for two types of custody: physical custody and legal custody.

Physical custody refers to the right to have physical possession of the child, whereas legal custody refers to the right to make important decisions about the child’s life, such as education, medical care, and religious upbringing. Both types of custody can be either shared or sole.

Determining Custody:

The primary concern in any child custody case is the best interests of the child. Pennsylvania law requires courts to consider a variety of factors when making custody determinations, including:

  1. The child’s age, gender, and health.
  2. The child’s relationship with each parent, siblings, and other significant people in the child’s life.
  3. Each parent’s ability to provide for the child’s physical, emotional, and developmental needs.
  4. Each parent’s willingness to encourage and facilitate the child’s relationship with the other parent.
  5. Any history of abuse or domestic violence.
  6. The child’s preference, if the child is of sufficient age and maturity to express a preference.
  7. Any other relevant factors.

The court may also consider the distance between the parents’ residences and any practical considerations that may impact the child’s welfare.

Types of Custody Arrangements:

There are several different types of custody arrangements that can be ordered by the court, including:

  1. Sole physical custody: One parent has physical custody of the child, and the other parent has visitation rights.
  2. Shared physical custody: Both parents have significant periods of physical custody, and the child spends a substantial amount of time with each parent.
  3. Sole legal custody: One parent has the right to make all major decisions regarding the child’s life, and the other parent has no input.
  4. Shared legal custody: Both parents have the right to make major decisions regarding the child’s life.

Modification of Custody Orders:

Child custody orders are not set in stone, and they can be modified if there has been a substantial change in circumstances. Examples of substantial changes in circumstances may include a parent’s relocation, a change in the child’s needs, or a parent’s failure to comply with the existing custody order.


Child custody is a complicated and emotional issue. Pennsylvania’s child custody laws are designed to balance the rights and responsibilities of each parent while prioritizing the well-being of the child. By understanding the legal framework and working with a qualified attorney, parents can navigate the custody process and ensure the best possible outcome for their family.

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Simon Law LLC